Bioenergi dan Biofuel: Teori dan Terapan

Authors

Darwin
Penulis serta menjabat sebagai pemimpin redaksi pada jurnal ilmiah

Synopsis

Energi merupakan salah satu dari kebutuhan utama yang harus dipenuhi oleh setiap bangsa di dunia. Ketersediaan energi merupakan hal yang sangat vital untuk mendukung keberlanjutan peradaban umat manusia di suatu negara. Bertambahnya populasi penduduk yang diikuti dengan peningkatan kebutuhan energi telah menyebabkan terbatasnya ketersediaan energi terutama energi yang berasal dari fosil yang merupakan bentuk energi yang tidak dapat diperbaharui. Inovasi dan penerapan teknologi dalam temuan yang dapat menghasilkan produk energi terbarukan merupakan hal yang mutlak untuk dimiliki oleh suatu bangsa. Buku ini mencakup pembahasan proses produksi bioenergi dan biofuel yang meliputi bioetanol, biodiesel, dan biogas. Penjelasan diuraikan secara rinci pada feedstock atau bahan baku biofuel serta tahapan-tahapan proses untuk menghasilkan bioetanol, biodiesel, dan biogas serta pemurniannya. Buku ini menyajikan kemudahan kepada para pembaca untuk memahami proses produksi dari masing-masing biofuel dan bioenergi melalui persamaan-persamaan reaksi kimianya serta beberapa tahapan eksperimen. Buku ini juga dilengkapi dengan contoh soal sehingga memudahkan para pembaca khususnya mahasiswa dalam memahami perhitungan-perhitungan yang ada.

Author Biography

Darwin, Penulis serta menjabat sebagai pemimpin redaksi pada jurnal ilmiah

Dr. Darwin, M.Sc lahir di Karang Baru pada 10 Februari 1983. Beliau menyelesaikan pendidikan Sarjananya di Jurusan Teknik Pertanian, Universitas Syiah Kuala. Kemudian, beliau melanjutkan studi Master di Biological and Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University, USA. Pada jenjang PhD, beliau mengambil jurusan Enviromental Engineering, School of Engineering and IT Murdoch University, Perth, Australia.

References

Abdel-Fattah, Y. R., Soliman, N. A., El-Toukhy, N. M., El-Gendi, H., & Ahmed, R. S. (2013). Production, purification, and characterization of thermostable α-amylase produced by Bacillus licheniformis isolate AI20. Journal of Chemistry, 2013.

Abubaker, H. O., Sulieman, A. M. E., & Elamin, H. B. (2012). Utilization of Schizosaccharomyces pombe for Production of etanol from Cane Molasses. J Microbiol Res, 2, 36-40.

Adekunle, K. F., & Okolie, J. A. (2015). A review of biochemical process of anaerobic digestion. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 6(03), 205.

Ahlborg, H., & Sjöstedt, M. (2015). Small-scale hydropower in Africa: Socio-technical designs for renewable energy in Tanzanian villages. Energy Research & Social Science, 5, 20-33.

Ahmad, A. L., Yasin, N. M., Derek, C. J. C., & Lim, J. K. (2011). Microalgae as a sustainable energy source for biodiesel production: a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(1), 584- 593.

Alley, E. R. 2007. Water quality control handbook. McGraw-Hill, New York, USA.

Atabani, A.E., Silitonga, A.S., Badruddin, I.A., Mahlia, T.M.I., Masjuki, H.H., Mekhilef, S., 2012. A comprehensive review on biodiesel as an alternatif energy resource and its characteristics. Renew.Sustain. Energy Rev. 16(4), 2070-2093.

Atadashi, I. M., Aroua, M. K., & Aziz, A. A. (2010). High quality biodiesel and its diesel engine application: a review. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 14(7), 1999-2008.

Bailey, P. S. (1982). Ozonation in organic chemistry. Academic press, Inc.

New York, USA.

Basile, A., Lulianelli, A., Dalena, F., Veziroglu, T.N. (2019). Etanol: Science and Engineering. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherland.

Ben-Iwo, J., Manovic, V., & Longhurst, P. (2016). Biomass resources and biofuels potential for the production of transportation fuels in Nigeria. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 63, 172- 192.

Bhatia, S. C. (2014). Advanced renewable energy systems,(Part 1 and 2).

CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, USA.

Bhutto, A. W., Qureshi, K., Harijan, K., Abro, R., Abbas, T., Bazmi, A. A., ... & Yu, G. (2017). Insight into progress in pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Energy, 122, 724-745.

Boey, P. L., Maniam, G. P., & Abd Hamid, S. (2009). Biodiesel production via transesterification of palm olein using waste mud crab (Scylla serrata) shell as a heterogeneous catalyst. Bioresource technology, 100(24), 6362-6368.

Bondy, S. C. (1992). Etanol toxicity and oxidative stress. Toxicology letters, 63(3), 231-241.

Brebbia, C.A., Neophytou, M., Beriatos, E., Ioannou, I., Kungolos, A.G. (2009). Sustainable Development and Planning IV. WIT Press. Southampton, U.K.

Brennan, L., & Owende, P. (2010). Biofuels from microalgae—a review of technologies for production, processing, and extractions of biofuels and co-products. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 14(2), 557-577.

Bušić, A., Marđetko, N., Kundas, S., Morzak, G., Belskaya, H., Ivančić Šantek, M., ... & Šantek, B. (2018). Bioetanol production from renewable raw materials and its separation and purification: A review. Food technology and biotechnology, 56(3), 289-311.

Busu, Z., Sulaiman, A., Hassan, M. A., Shirai, Y., Abd-Aziz, S., Yacob, S., & Wakisaka, M. (2010). Improved anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent in a semi-commercial closed digester tank with sludge recycling and appropriate feeding strategy. Pertanika J Trop Agr Sci, 33, 27-37.

Cadenas, A., & Cabezudo, S. (1998). Biofuels as sustainable technologies: perspectives for less developed countries. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 58(1-2), 83-103.

Canakci, M. (2007). The potential of restaurant waste lipids as biodiesel feedstocks. Bioresource technology, 98(1), 183-190.

Cazetta, M. L., Celligoi, M. A. P. C., Buzato, J. B., & Scarmino, I. S. (2007). Fermentation of molasses by Zymomonas mobilis: Effects of temperature and sugar concentration on etanol production. Bioresource technology, 98(15), 2824-2828.

Chase, L. D., & Henson, I. E. (2010). A detailed greenhouse gas budget for palm oil production. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 8(3), 199-214.

Chauhan, B. S., Kumar, N., & Cho, H. M. (2012). A study on the performance and emission of a diesel engine fueled with Jatropha biodiesel oil and its blends. Energy, 37(1), 616-622.

Chen, X., Ottosen, L. D. M., & Kofoed, M. V. W. (2019). How low can you go: methane production of methanobacterium congolense at low CO2 concentrations. Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 7, 34.

Chen, Y., Liu, Q., Zhou, T., Li, B., Yao, S., Li, A., ... & Ying, H. (2013). Etanol production by repeated batch and continuous fermentations by Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in a fibrous bed bioreactor. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol, 23(4), 511-517.

Chen, S., Zhang, J., & Wang, X. (2015). Effects of alkalinity sources on the stability of anaerobic digestion from food waste. Waste Management & Research, 33(11), 1033-1040.

Cheng, J. (2010). Biomass to Renewable energy process. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, USA.

Chhetri, A. B., Watts, K. C., & Islam, M. R. (2008). Waste cooking oil as an alternate feedstock for biodiesel production. Energies, 1(1), 3-18.

Chin, M. J., Poh, P. E., Tey, B. T., Chan, E. S., & Chin, K. L. (2013). Biogas from palm oil mill effluent (POME): Opportunities and challenges from Malaysia's perspective. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 26, 717-726.

Choorit, W., & Wisarnwan, P. (2007). Effect of temperature on the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, 10(3), 376-385.

Christy, P. M., Gopinath, L. R., & Divya, D. (2014a). Microbial dynamics during anaerobic digestion of cow dung. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences, 4(4), 86-94.

Christy, P. M., Gopinath, L. R., & Divya, D. (2014b). A review on anaerobic decomposition and enhancement of biogas production through enzymes and microorganisms. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 34, 167-173.

Chubukov, V., Gerosa, L., Kochanowski, K. and Sauer, U. (2014). Coordination of microbial metabolism. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 12(5), 327-340.

Chum, H. L., Warner, E., Seabra, J. E., & Macedo, I. C. (2014). A comparison of commercial etanol production systems from Brazilian sugarcane and US corn. Biofuels, bioproducts and biorefining, 8(2), 205-223.

Conrad, R., & Wetter, B. (1990). Influence of temperature on energetics of hydrogen metabolism in homoacetogenic, methanogenic, and other anaerobic bacteria. Archives of Microbiology, 155(1), 94- 98.

Corno, L., Pilu, R., & Adani, F. (2014). Arundo donax L.: a non-food crop for bioenergy and bio-compound production. Biotechnology advances, 32(8), 1535-1549.

Crago, C. L., Khanna, M., Barton, J., Giuliani, E., & Amaral, W. (2010). Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane etanol compared to US corn etanol. Energy Policy, 38(11), 7404-7415

Darwin, J. J. Cheng, Z. M. Liu, J. Gontupil, and O. S. Kwon. (2014). Anaerobic co-digestion of rice straw and digested swine manure with different total solid concentration for methane production. International Journal of Agricultural & Biological Engineering, 7(6), 79-90.

Darwin Cheng J.J., Liu Z., Gontupil J., (2016), Anaerobic co-digestion of cocoa husk with digested swine manure: evaluation of biodegradation efficiency in methane productivity. Agricultural Engineering International: The CIGR Journal, 18(4), 147–156.

Darwin, Fazil A., Ilham, M., Sarbaini, Purwanto, S. (2017). Kinetics on anaerobic co-digestion of bagasse and digested cow manure with short hydraulic retention time. Research in Agricultural En- gineering, 63(3):121-127.

Darwin, Cord‐Ruwisch, R., Charles, W. (2018a). Etanol and lactic acid production from sugar and starch wastes by anaerobic acidification. Engineering in Life Sciences, 18(9), 635-642.

Darwin, Barnes A, Cord-Ruwisch R. (2018b) In vitro rumen fermentation of soluble and non-soluble polymeric carbohydrates in relation to ruminal acidosis. Annals of Microbiology, 68(1), 1–8.

Darwin, Cord-Ruwisch, R. (2019). Thermodynamics of anaerobic digestion: Mechanism of suppression on biogas production during acidogenesis. INMATEH-Agricultural Engineering, 57(1), 287-301.

Darwin, Triovanta, U., & Rinaldi, R. (2019). Two-Stage Anaerobic Co- digestion of Landfill Leachate and Starch Wastes Using Anaerobic Biofilm Reactor for Methane Production. Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences, 15(1), 53-70.

Darwin, Pratama, A.D., Mardhotillah. (2020). A synthesis of biodiesel on the ground of cooking oil using lignocellulosic residues as a heterogeneous catalyst and alcohol solvents. Journal of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 5(4), 778-784.

Dechrugsa, S., Kantachote, D., & Chaiprapat, S. (2013). Effects of inoculum to substrate ratio, substrate mix ratio and inoculum source on batch co-digestion of grass and pig manure. Bioresource technology, 146, 101-108.

Demirbas, E., M. Kobya, and M. T. Sulak. (2008). Adsorption kinetics of a basic dye from aqueous solutions onto apricot stone activated carbon. Bioresource Technology, 99(13), 5368-5373.

Demirbaş, A. (2003). Biodiesel fuels from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical alcohol transesterifications and other methods: a survey. Energy conversion and Management, 44(13), 2093-2109.

Demirbaş, A. (2002). Biodiesel from vegetable oils via transesterification in supercritical metanol. Energy conversion and management, 43(17), 2349-2356.

De Simio, L., Gambino, M., & Iannaccone, S. (2012). Effect of etanol content on thermal efficiency of a spark-ignition light-duty engine. ISRN Renewable Energy, 2012.

Diaz, A., Le Toullec, J., Blandino, A., de Ory, I., & Caro, I. (2013). Pretreatment of rice hulls with alkaline peroxide to enhance enzyme hydrolysis for etanol production. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 32.

Dong, X., Plugge, C. M., & Stams, A. J. (1994). Anaerobic degradation of propionate by a mesophilic acetogenic bacterium in coculture and triculture with different methanogens. Applied and environmental microbiology, 60(8), 2834-2838.

Dwevedi, A. (2018). Solutions to Environmental Problems Involving Nanotechnology and Enzyme Technology. Academic Press.

Edmonds, I., & Smith, G. (2011). Surface reflectance and conversion efficiency dependence of technologies for mitigating global warming. Renewable energy, 36(5), 1343-1351.

Eed, J. (2012). Factors affecting enzyme activity. Essai, 10(1), 19.

Eze, J. I., & Agbo, K. E. (2010). Maximizing the potentials of biogas through upgrading. American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 1(3), 604-609.

Feinman, L., & Lieber, C. S. (1999). Etanol and lipid metabolism. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70, 791-792.

Fontes, C. H. D. O., & Freires, F. G. M. (2018). Sustainable and renewable energy supply chain: A system dynamics overview. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 82, 247-259.

Fore, S. R., Porter, P., & Lazarus, W. (2011). Net energy balance of small-scale on-farm biodiesel production from canola and soybean. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35(5), 2234-2244.

Gaddy, J. L., & Clausen, E. C. (1992). U.S. Patent No. 5,173,429.

Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Gallo, J. M. R., & Trapp, M. A. (2017). The chemical conversion of biomass- derived saccharides: An overview. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, 28(9), 1586-1607.

Gavala, H. N., Angelidaki, I., & Ahring, B. K. (2003). Kinetics and modeling of anaerobic digestion process. In Biomethanation I (pp. 57-93). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Germany.

Garoma, T., Ben‐Khaled, M., & Beyene, A. (2012). Comparative resource analyses for etanol produced from corn and sugarcane in different climatic zones. International journal of energy research, 36(10), 1065-1076.

Geng, P., Furey, R., & Konzack, A. (2010). Calculation of heating value for gasoline containing etanol. SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, 3(2), 229-237.

Goswami, D. Y., & Kreith, F. (Eds.). (2015). Energy efficiency and renewable

energy handbook. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

Groom, M. J., Gray, E. M., & Townsend, P. A. (2008). Biofuels and biodiversity: principles for creating better policies for biofuel production. Conservation biology, 22(3), 602-609.

Gross, S., & Robbins, E. I. (2000). Acidophilic and acid-tolerant fungi and yeasts. Hydrobiologia, 433(1-3), 91-109.

Ghernaout, D., & Ghernaout, B. (2012). On the concept of the future drinking water treatment plant: algae harvesting from the algal biomass for biodiesel production—a review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 49(1-3), 1-18.

Halim, R., Danquah, M. K., & Webley, P. A. (2012). Extraction of oil from microalgae for biodiesel production: A review. Biotechnology advances, 30(3), 709-732.

Hansen, R.W. 2003. Methane Generation From Livestock Wastes, Equipment 5: (2). Colorado: Colorado State University, Fort Collins.

Hansson, G. (1979). Effects of carbon dioxide and methane on methanogenesis. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 6(4), 351-359.

Helwani, Z., Othman, M. R., Aziz, N., Fernando, W. J. N., & Kim, J. (2009). Technologies for production of biodiesel focusing on green catalytic techniques: a review. Fuel Processing Technology, 90(12), 1502- 1514.

Hines, M., Holmes, C., &Schad, R. (2010). Simple strategies to improve bioprocess pure culture processing. PharmaceuticaL Engineering. 30 (3): 1-11.

Hwang, M. H., Jang, N. J., Hyun, S. H., & Kim, I. S. (2004). Anaerobic bio-hydrogen production from etanol fermentation: the role of pH. Journal of Biotechnology, 111(3), 297-309.

Ibrahim, M. F., Abd-Aziz, S., Yusoff, M. E. M., Phang, L. Y., & Hassan,

M. A. (2015). Simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and ABE fermentation using pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch as substrate to produce butanol and hydrogen as biofuel. Renewable Energy, 77, 447-455.

Iris, K. M., Tsang, D. C., Yip, A. C., Chen, S. S., Ok, Y. S., & Poon, C. S. (2017).

Valorization of starchy, cellulosic, and sugary food waste into hydroxymethylfurfural by one-pot catalysis. Chemosphere, 184, 1099-1107.

Ishika, T., Moheimani, N. R., & Bahri, P. A. (2017). Sustainable saline microalgae co-cultivation for biofuel production: a critical review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 78, 356- 368.

Islam, R., Cicek, N., Sparling, R. and Levin, D. (2006). Effect of substrate loading on hydrogen production during anaerobic fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum 27405. Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 72(3), 576-583.

Joanne K.P. (1991). Applied Math for Wastewater Plant Operators. CRC Press. New York, USA.

Johnson, D. B. (1998). Biological abatement of acid mine drainage: the role of acidophilic protozoa and other indigenous microflora. In Acidic Mining Lakes (pp. 285-301). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Karthikeyan, O. P., & Visvanathan, C. (2012). Effect of C/N ratio and ammonia-N accumulation in a pilot-scale thermophilic dry anaerobik digester. Bioresource technology, 113, 294-302.

Kawashima, A., Matsubara, K., & Honda, K. (2008). Development of heterogeneous base catalysts for biodiesel production. Bioresource technology, 99(9), 3439-3443.

Keera, S. T., El Sabagh, S. M., & Taman, A. R. (2011). Transesterification of vegetable oil to biodiesel fuel using alkaline catalyst. Fuel, 90(1), 42-47.

Keim, G.I. (1945). Process for treatment of fatty glycerides. US Pattent 2, 383, 601.

Khan, M. I., Chhetri, A. B., & Islam, M. R. (2007). Analyzing sustainability of community-based energy technologies. Energy Sources, Part B, 2(4), 403-419.

Khan, E. U., Mainali, B., Martin, A., & Silveira, S. (2014). Techno-economic analysis of small scale biogas based polygeneration systems: Bangladesh case study. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 7, 68-78.

Kim, H. J., Kang, B. S., Kim, M. J., Park, Y. M., Kim, D. K., Lee, J. S., & Lee,

K. Y. (2004). Transesterification of vegetable oil to biodiesel using

heterogeneous base catalyst. Catalysis today, 93, 315-320.

Klass, D. L. (1998). Biomass for renewable energy, fuels, and chemicals.

Academic Press, An imprint of Elsevier, California, USA.

Kleerebezem, R. and van Loosdrecht, M.C. (2007). Mixed culture biotechnology for bioenergy production. Current opinion in biotechnology, 18(3), 207-212.

Knothe, G., & Razon, L. F. (2017). Biodiesel fuels. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 58, 36-59.

Knothe, G. (2010). Biodiesel and renewable diesel: a comparison. Progress in energy and combustion science, 36(3), 364-373.

Koh, L. P., & Wilcove, D. S. (2008). Is oil palm agriculture really destroying tropical biodiversity?. Conservation letters, 1(2), 60-64.

Konwar, L. J., Chutia, S., Boro, J., Kataki, R., & Deka, D. (2012). Biochar supported CaO as heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development, 1(7), 186-195.

Kostic, M. A., & Dart, R. C. (2003). Rethinking the toxic metanol level. Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology, 41(6), 793-800.

Kurki A, Hill A and Morris M (2006). Biodiesel: The Sustainability Dimensions. ATTRA Publications.

Labinger, J. A., Herring, A. M., & Bercaw, J. E. (1990). Selective hydroxylation of methyl groups by platinum salts in aqueous medium. Direct conversion of etanol to ethylene glycol. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 112(14), 5628-5629.

Lackner, N., Hintersonnleitner, A., Wagner, A. O., & Illmer, P. (2018). Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and autotrophic growth of Methanosarcina thermophila. Archaea, 2018.

Lam, M. K., Lee, K. T., & Mohamed, A. R. (2010). Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: a review. Biotechnology advances, 28(4), 500-518.

Lau, L. C., Lee, K. T., & Mohamed, A. R. (2012). Global warming mitigation and renewable energy policy development from the Kyoto Protocol to the Copenhagen Accord—A comment. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(7), 5280-5284.

Leroy, F., & De Vuyst, L. (2004).Lactic acid bacteria as functional starter cultures for the food fermentation industry. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 15(2), 67-78.

Leung, D. Y., Wu, X., & Leung, M. K. H. (2010). A review on biodiesel production using catalyzed transesterification. Applied energy, 87(4), 1083-1095.

Limayem, A., & Ricke, S. C. (2012). Lignocellulosic biomass for bioetanol production: current perspectives, potential issues and future prospects. Progress in energy and combustion science, 38(4), 449-467.

Lin, Y. and Tanaka, S. (2006). Etanol fermentation from biomass resources: current state and prospects. Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 69(6), 627-642.

Lohani, S. P., & Havukainen, J. (2018). Anaerobic digestion: factors affecting anaerobic digestion process. Waste Bioremediation (pp. 343-359). Springer, Singapore.

Lotero, E., Liu, Y., Lopez, D. E., Suwannakarn, K., Bruce, D. A., & Goodwin,

J. G. (2005). Synthesis of biodiesel via acid catalysis. Industrial & engineering chemistry research, 44(14), 5353-5363.

Lo K V, Liao P H, Bulley N R, Chieng S T. (1984). A comparison of biogas production from dairy manure filtrate using conventional and fixed film reactors. Canadian Agricultural Engineering, 26(1), 73–78.

Luckett, C. R. (2012). Effect of enzymatic treatments on the physiochemical properties of different corn starches. Master Thesis. University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, USA.

Maier, R.M., Pepper, I. and Gerba, C.P. (2009). Environmental microbiology.

Academic Press. USA.

Mamat, R., Sani, M. S. M., Sudhakar, K., Kadarohman, A., & Sardjono,

R. E. (2019). An overview of Higher alcohol and biodiesel as alternatif fuels in engines. Energy Reports, 5, 467-479.

Ma, F., & Hanna, M. A. (1999). Biodiesel production: a review. Bioresource technology, 70(1), 1-15.

Ma, H., Wang, Q., Qian, D., Gong, L., & Zhang, W. (2009). The utilization of acid-tolerant bacteria on etanol production from kitchen garbage. Renewable Energy, 34(6), 1466-1470.

Manik, Y., Leahy, J., Halog, A. 2013. Social life cycle assessment of palm oil biodiesel: a case study in Jambi Province of Indonesia. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 18(7), 1386-1392.

Martínez, E. A., Giulietti, M., Uematsu, M., Derenzo, S., & e Silva, J. B.

A. (2011). Solid-liquid equilibrium of xylose in water and etanol/ water mixture. Chemical Product and Process Modeling, 6(1).

Medawar, W., Strehaiano, P., & Délia, M. L. (2003). Yeast growth: lag phase modelling in alcoholic media. Food Microbiology, 20(5), 527-532.

Medipally, S. R., Yusoff, F. M., Banerjee, S., & Shariff, M. (2015). Microalgae as sustainable renewable energy feedstock for biofuel production. BioMed research international, 2015, 1-13.

Menzel, K., Zeng, A.P. and Deckwer, W.D. (1997). High concentration and productivity of 1, 3-propanediol from continuous fermentation of glycerol by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 20(2), 82-86.

Mizuno, O., Li, Y. Y., & Noike, T. (1998). The behavior of sulfate-reducing bacteria in acidogenic phase of anaerobic digestion. Water Research, 32(5), 1626-1634.

Mohammad, N., Alam, M. Z., Kabbashi, N. A., & Ahsan, A. (2012). Effective composting of oil palm industrial waste by filamentous fungi: A review. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 58, 69-78.

Monod, J.(1949). The growth of bacterial cultures. Annual Reviews in Microbiology, 3(1), 371-394.

Moestedt, J., Påledal, S. N., & Schnürer, A. (2013). The effect of substrate and operational parameters on the abundance of sulphate-reducing bacteria in industrial anaerobic biogas digesters. Bioresource technology, 132, 327-332.

Nghiem, N. P., Ramírez, E. C., McAloon, A. J., Yee, W., Johnston, D. B., & Hicks, K. B. (2011). Economic analysis of fuel etanol production from winter hulled barley by the EDGE (Enhanced Dry Grind Enzymatic) process. Bioresource technology, 102(12), 6696-

Norgrove, L. (2010). Impacts of biofuel production on food security. International Union of Food Science& Technology,IUFoST Scientific Information Bulletin SIB, 1-17.

NRC (National Research Council). (1984). Emergency and continuous exposure limits for selected airborne contaminants. Committee on Toxicology. National Academies. USA.

NRC (National Research Council). (1987). Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Ammonia, Hydrogen Chloride, Lithium Bromide, and Toluene, Vol. 7. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

NRC (National Research Council). 1991. Permissible Exposure Levels and Emergency Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Okitsu, K., Sadanaga, Y., Takenaka, N., Maeda, Y., & Bandow, H. (2013). A new co-solvent method for the green production of biodiesel fuel–optimization and practical application. Fuel, 103, 742-748.

Ong, H. C., Mahlia, T. M. I., Masjuki, H. H., & Honnery, D. (2012). Life cycle cost and sensitivity analysis of palm biodiesel production. Fuel, 98, 131-139.

Onuki, S., Koziel, J. A., van Leeuwen, J. H., Jenks, W. S., Grewell, D., & Cai, L. (2008). Etanol production, purification, and analysis techniques: a review. In 2008 Providence, Rhode Island, June 29–July 2, 2008 (p. 1). American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.

Oyewole, O. B. (1990). Optimization of cassava fermentation for fufu production: effects of single starter cultures. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 68(1), 49-54.

Pandey, A., Larroche, C., Gnansounou, E., Khanal, S. K., Dussap, C. G., & Ricke, S. (Eds.). (2019). Biomass, Biofuels, Biochemicals: Biofuels: Alternatif Feedstocks and Conversion Processes for the Production of Liquid and Gaseous Biofuels. Academic Press.

Papurello, D., Lanzini, A., Tognana, L., Silvestri, S., & Santarelli, M. (2015). Waste to energy: Exploitation of biogas from organic waste in a 500 Wel solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack. Energy, 85, 145-158.

Parawira W, Read J S, Mattiasson B, Bjornsson L. (2008) Energy production from agricultural residues: high methane yields in pilot-scale two- stage anaerobic digestion. Biomass and Bioenergy, 32: 44–50.

Park, C., Choi, Y., Kim, C., Oh, S., Lim, G., & Moriyoshi, Y. (2010). Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a spark ignition engine using etanol and etanol-reformed gas. Fuel, 89(8), 2118-2125.

Peng, X., Nie, S., Li, X., Huang, X., & Li, Q. (2019). Characteristics of the water-and alkali-soluble hemicelluloses fractionated by sequential acidification and graded-etanol from sweet maize stems. Molecules, 24(1), 212.

Pereira, C. L., & Ortega, E. (2010). Sustainability assessment of large- scale etanol production from sugarcane. Journal of Cleaner Production, 18(1), 77-82.

Persson, Margareta, Owe Jönsson, and Arthur Wellinger. (2006). Biogas upgrading to vehicle fuel standards and grid injection. In IEA Bioenergy task, vol. 37, pp. 1-34.

Peterson, C.L., Feldman, M., Korus, R. & Auld, D.L. (1991). Batch type transesterification process for winter rape oil. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 7, 711-716.

Petersson, A., & Wellinger, A. (2009). Biogas upgrading technologies–

developments and innovations. IEA bioenergy, 20, 1-19.

Poh, P. E., & Chong, M. F. (2009). Development of anaerobic digestion methods for palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment. Bioresource Technology, 100(1), 1-9.

Pradeep, V., Deepika, C., Urvi, G., & Hitesh, S. (2012). Water quality analysis of an organically polluted lake by investigating different physical and chemical parameters. International J of Research in Chemistry and Environment, 2(1), 105-111.

Pradhan, A., Shrestha, D. S., McAloon, A., Yee, W., Haas, M., & Duffield,

J. A. (2011). Energy life-cycle assessment of soybean biodiesel revisited. Transactions of the ASABE, 54(3), 1031-1039.

Pumphrey, B., Julien, C., & BV, N. B. S. B. (1996). An Introduction to Fermentation. Fermentation Basics, New Brunswick Scientific Ltd. UK.

Ren, N. Q., Chua, H., Chan, S. Y., Tsang, Y. F., Wang, Y. J., & Sin, N. (2007). Assessing optimal fermentation type for bio-hydrogen production in continuous-flow acidogenic reactors. Bioresource Technology, 98(9), 1774-1780.

Rodriguez-Verde, I., Regueiro, L., Carballa, M., Hospido, A., & Lema,

J. M. (2014). Assessing anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure with agroindustrial wastes: The link between environmental impacts and operational parameters. Science of the total environment, 497, 475-483.

Rolfe, M. D., Rice, C. J., Lucchini, S., Pin, C., Thompson, A., Cameron,

A. D., ... & Peck, M. W. (2012). Lag phase is a distinct growth phase that prepares bacteria for exponential growth and involves transient metal accumulation. Journal of bacteriology, 194(3), 686-701.

Romano, R. T., Zhang, R., Teter, S., & McGarvey, J. A. (2009). The effect of enzyme addition on anaerobic digestion of Jose Tall Wheat Grass. Bioresource technology, 100(20), 4564-4571.

Schenk, P. M., Thomas-Hall, S. R., Stephens, E., Marx, U. C., Mussgnug, J. H., Posten, C., ... & Hankamer, B. (2008). Second generation biofuels: high-efficiency microalgae for biodiesel production. Bioenergy research, 1(1), 20-43.

Schnurer, A., & Jarvis, A. (2010). Microbiological handbook for biogas plants. Swedish Waste Management U, 2009, 1-74.

Serio, D. M., Cozzolino, M., Giordano, M., Tesser, R., Patrono, P., & Santacesaria, E. (2007). From homogeneous to heterogeneous catalysts in biodiesel production. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 46(20), 6379-6384.

Shah, D., Nagarsheth, J., & Acharya, P. (2016). Purification of biogas using chemical scrubbing and application of purified biogas as fuel for automotive engines. Research Journal of recent sciences, 5, 1-7.

Shalin, T., Sindhu, R., Binod, P., Soccol, C. R., & Pandey, A. (2014). Mixed Cultures Fermentation for the Production of Poly- ß-hydroxybutyrate. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 57(5), 644-652.

Shanavas, S., Padmaja, G., Moorthy, S. N., Sajeev, M. S., & Sheriff, J.

T. (2011). Process optimization for bioetanol production from cassava starch using novel eco-friendly enzymes. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35(2), 901-909.

Sheehan, J., Camobreco, V., Duffield, J., Graboski, M., and Shapouri, H. (1998). Life Cycle Inventory of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel for Use in an Urban Bus. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, NREL/SR-580-24089.

Shi-yi, L., & Jian, C. (1992). The contribution of interspecies hydrogen transfer to the substrate removal in methanogenesis. Process biochemistry, 27(5), 285-289.

Simanowski, U. A., Homann, N., Knühl, M., Arce, L., Waldherr, R., Conradt, C., ... & Seitz, H. K. (2001). Increased rectal cell proliferation following alcohol abuse. Gut, 49(3), 418-422.

Singh SP and Singh, D. (2010). Biodiesel production through the use of different sources and characterization of oils and their esters as the substitute of diesel: a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 14(1):200-216.

Soltanian, M. R., Amooie, M. A., Cole, D. R., Darrah, T. H., Graham, D. E., Pfiffner, S. M., ... & Moortgat, J. (2018). Impacts of methane on carbon dioxide storage in brine formations. Groundwater, 56(2), 176-186.

Sridhar, M. K., & AdeOluwa, O. O. (2009). Palm oil industry residues. In Biotechnology for agro-industrial residues utilisation, Springer, Dordrecht, 341-355.

Stanmore, B. R. (2010). Generation of energy from sugarcane bagasse by thermal treatment. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 1(1), 77-89.

Sun, Y., Zwolińska, E., & Chmielewski, A. G. (2016). Abatement technologies for high concentrations of NOx and SO2 removal from exhaust gases: A review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 46(2), 119-142.

Suresh, K. S., Suresh, P. V., & Kudre, T. G. (2019). Prospective ecofuel feedstocks for sustainable production. In Advances in Eco-Fuels for a Sustainable Environment, Woodhead Publishing, pp. 89- 117.

Susila, W. R., & Munadi, E. (2008). Dampak pengembangan biodiesel berbasis CPO terhadap kemiskinan di Indonesia. Jurnal Informatika Pertanian, 17(2), 1173-1194.

Tahir, N. I., Shaari, K., Abas, F., Parveez, G. K. A., Ishak, Z., & Ramli, U. S. (2012). Characterization of apigenin and luteolin derivatives from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) leaf using LC–ESI-MS/ MS. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 60(45), 11201- 11210.

Tan, K.T., Lee, K.T., & Mohamed, A.R. (2010). Effects of free fatty acids, water content and co-solvent on biodiesel production by supercritical metanol reaction. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 53(1-3), 88-91.

Tekin, A. R., & Dalgıç, A. C. (2000). Biogas production from olive pomace. Resources, Conservation and recycling, 30(4), 301-313.

Temudo, M. F., Kleerebezem, R., & van Loosdrecht, M. (2007). Influence of the pH on (open) mixed culture fermentation of glucose: a chemostat study. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 98(1), 69- 79.

Thatipamala, R., Rohani, S., & Hill, G. A. (1992). Effects of high product and substrate inhibitions on the kinetics and biomass and product yields during etanol batch fermentation. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 40(2), 289-297.

Thauer, R. K., Jungermann, K. and Decker, K. (1977). Energy conservation in chemotrophic anaerobic bacteria. Bacteriol. Rev. 41, 100-180.

Tibaquirá, J. E., Huertas, J. I., Ospina, S., Quirama, L. F., & Niño, J.

E. (2018). The effect of using etanol-gasoline blends on the mechanical, energy and environmental performance of in-use vehicles. Energies, 11(1), 221.

Tippayawong, N., & Thanompongchart, P. (2010). Biogas quality upgrade by simultaneous removal of CO2 and H2S in a packed column reactor. Energy, 35(12), 4531-4535.

USDA. (2001). Potassium hydroxide Processing. National Organic Standards Board Technical Advisory Panel Review Compiled by Organic Materials Review Institute for the USDA National Organic Program. United States Department of Agriculture. USA.

Van Gerpen, J. (2005). Biodiesel processing and production. Fuel processing technology, 86(10), 1097-1107.

Vásquez-Véliz, G., Vargas-Farías, C., Garín-Aguilar, M., Del Toro, G. V., Jara-Bastidas, L., & Valenzuela-Cobos, J. (2018). Etanol Production using Lignocellulosic Biomass. Italian Journal of Food Science, 198-203.

Vijay, V. K., Chandra, R., Subbarao, P. M., & Kapdi, S. S. (2006, November). Biogas purification and bottling into CNG cylinders: producing Bio-CNG from biomass for rural automotive applications. In The 2nd Joint International Conference on “Sustainable Energy and Environment (pp. 1-6).

Wang, L., Fan, D., Chen, W. and Terentjev, E.M. (2015). Bacterial growth, detachment and cell size control on polyethylene terephthalate surfaces. Scientific reports, 5 (15159), 1-11.

Wang, Y., Wang, X., Liu, Y., Ou, S., Tan, Y., & Tang, S. (2009). Refining of biodiesel by ceramic membrane separation. Fuel Processing Technology, 90(3), 422-427.

Wahidin, S., Idris, A., & Shaleh, S. R. M. (2014). Rapid biodiesel production using wet microalgae via microwave irradiation. Energy conversion and management, 84, 227-233.

Weimer, M. A., Paing, T. S., & Zane, R. A. (2006, June). Remote area wind energy harvesting for low-power autonomous sensors. In 2006 37th IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference (pp. 1-5). IEEE.

Woźniak, E., Waszkowska, E., Zimny, T., Sowa, S., & Twardowski, T. (2019). The Rapeseed Potential in Poland and Germany in the Context of Production, Legislation and Intellectual Property Rights. Frontiers in plant science, 10, 1423.

Wright, H. J., Segur, J. B., Clark, H. V., Coburn, S. K., Langdon, E. E., & DuPuis, R. N. (1944). A report on ester interchange. Oil and Soap, 21(5), 145-148.

Wu, H., Zou, D., & Gao, K. (2008). Impacts of increased atmospheric CO 2 concentration on photosynthesis and growth of micro-and macro- algae. Science in China Series C: Life Sciences, 51(12), 1144- 1150.

Yang, Q., Luo, K., Li, X. M., Wang, D. B., Zheng, W., Zeng, G. M., & Liu, J. J. (2010). Enhanced efficiency of biological excess sludge hydrolysis under anaerobic digestion by additional enzymes. Bioresource Technology, 101(9), 2924-2930.

Yu, H. G. and Fang, H. H. (2002). Acidogenesis of dairy wastewater at various pH levels. Water Science and Technology45(10), 201- 206.

Zelikoff, J. T., Frampton, M. W., Morrow, M. D. C. P. E., Sisco, M., Tsai, Y., Utell, M. J., & Schlesinger, R. B. (1997). Effects of inhaled sulfuric acid aerosols on pulmonary immunocompetence: A comparative study in humans and animals. Inhalation toxicology, 9(8), 731- 752.

Zhang, Y., Dubé, M. A., McLean, D. D., & Kates, M. (2003). Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: 2. Economic assessment and sensitivity analysis. Bioresource technology, 90(3), 229-240.

Zhang, B., Zhang, L. L., Zhang, S. C., Shi, H. Z., & Cai, W. M. (2005). The influence of pH on hydrolysis and acidogenesis of kitchen wastes in two-phase anaerobic digestion. Environmental technology, 26(3), 329-340.

Zhao, Q., Leonhardt, E., MacConnell, C., Frear, C., & Chen, S. (2010). Purification technologies for biogas generated by anaerobic digestion. Compressed Biomethane, CSANR, Ed, 24.

Zhou, J. Z., Liu, X. L., Huang, K. H., Dong, M. S., & Jiang, H. H. (2007). Application of the mixture design to design the formulation of pure cultures in Tibetan kefir. Agricultural Sciences in China, 6(11), 1383-1389.

Zupančič, G. D., & Grilc, V. (2012). Anaerobic treatment and biogas production from organic waste. Management of organic waste, 3, 1-28.

Published

December 1, 2020

How to cite